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American Indian Studies: Since Time Immemorial

High School

American Indian Studies: STI Virtual Resources

District policy is that all classroom teachers use ONLY district adopted and state required Since Time Immemorial Curriculum and recommended resources and materials (RCW 28A.320.170) to teach tribal sovereignty and history at EVERY grade level. SPS further encourages teachers to integrate resources into all content areas.

List of resources for high school teachers High School SPS Scope and Sequence Native Resources 

(SPS Teacher access all lesson materials on the SPS Schoology American Indian Studies Course Page.)

Online Learning

While school is closed, American Indian Studies has collected lessons that students can do at home independently (and resources to share with their U.S. History teacher).  These are about Westward Invasion and Resistance.

Undoing the Damage of “Manifest Destiny” in High School U.S. History

One of the perennial issues with most textbook treatments of America’s invasion into the West is that they almost invariably portray Natives as victims.  The point is to always teach from the perspective of power : The most powerful government in the world sought to destroy 573 independent Native Nations.  They failed.  Miserably.  Below are lessons and materials that will help tell the entire story.


Lessons & Materials

Native Knowledge 360°

Native Knowledge 360° is structured with an essential question (the title of the module) and three supporting questions designed to help you respond to the essential question: Native Knowledge 360° complete learning modules.

Suggested Assignments:For each of the modules, explore the multimedia resources from the Smithsonian.  High School students can likely finish one module in 3–4 hours.  These are perfect for online learning.

  1. American Indian Removal: What Does It Mean to Remove a People?  
  2. Northern Plains: Is a Treaty Intended to Be Forever  
  3. Northern Plains: History and Culture: How Do Native People and Nations Experience Belonging?  
  4. Though not a Native Knowledge 360° Module, this lesson onAmerican Indian Removal: How Did Six Different Nations Try to Avoid Removal? shows the strength of will from six Indian Nations.  Contrary to popular belief, Native Nations did not go quietly.
  5. The Fish Wars: What Kinds of Actions Can Lead to Justice? *REQUIRED and reserved for all SPS high schools.

We Shall Remain PBS Series on Amazon Prime

We Shall Remain is a PBS video series on Amazon Prime.  Each episode is about 90 minutes in length, and you can go to the site to get the teaching guide.  The video series is also available for sale on PBS.

  1. After the Mayflower
  2. Tecumseh’s Vision
  3. Trail of Tears
  4. Geronimo
  5. Wounded Knee

OSPI’s Office of Native Education

The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction’s (OSPI) Office of Native Education (ONE) houses many resources and our required curriculum. 

  1. OSPI’s Tribal Sovereignty Resources
  2. OSPI’s Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State: High School
  3. National Archives General Allotment Act documents and lessons

SPS Staff

Please go to our American Indian Studies STI Schoology Course. You can access Schoology on the SPS Staff Resources webpage .

OSPI Outcomes-By the time Washington State students leave high school, they will know the above, and in addition they will:

  1. Recognize landmark court decisions and legislation that affected and continue to affect tribal sovereignty;
  2. Understand that tribal sovereignty works toward protecting tribes’ ways of life and toward the development of their nations;
  3. Understand that tribal, state, and federal agencies often work together toward the same goal;
  4. Explain the governmental structure of at least one tribe in their community; and
  5. Distinguish between federally and non-federally recognized tribes.
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